Mon, May 21, 2018, 23:27
Loss Reduction In Distribution System

Introduction  To Energy Losses in Distribution Power System  

Power generated in power stations pass through large and complex networks like transformers, overhead lines, cables and other equipment and reaches at the end users. It is fact that the unit of electric energy generated by Power Station does not match with the units distributed to the consumers. Some percentage of the units is lost in the distribution network.

This difference in the generated and distributed units is known as Transmission and Distribution loss. Transmission and Distribution loss are the amounts that are not paid for by users.

          % Losses = (Energy Input to feeder(Kwh) – Billed Energy to Consumer(Kwh)) / Energy Input   kwh x 100

   Distribution Sector considered as the weakest link in the entire power sector. Transmission Losses is     approximate 3% while Distribution Losses is approximate 15%.


  There are two types of Distribution Losses:  

  • ·         Technical Losses

  • ·         Non Technical Losses (Commercial Losses)

Technical Losses


   The technical losses are due to energy dissipated in the conductors, equipment used for transmission line, transformer, sub transmission line and distribution line and magnetic losses in transformers  .

Technical losses are directly depend on the network characteristics and the mode of operation.  

The major amount of losses in a power system is in primary and secondary distribution lines. While transmission and sub-transmission lines account for only about 40-30% of the total losses. Therefore the     primary and secondary distribution systems must be properly planned to ensure within limits.

The unexpected load increase was reflected in the increase of technical losses above the normal level 

Losses are inherent to the distribution of electricity and cannot be eliminated. 

Major cause of technical losses

1-     Lengthy Distribution line

2-     Inadequate size of conductors of line

3-     Installing of distribution transformer away from load center

4-     Low power factor

5-     Bad workmanship

6-     Feeder phase current and load balancing

7-     Transformer size and type selection     

   Reasons for commercial losses  

             Theft and pilferage account for a substantial part of the high transmission and distribution losses in India. Theft / pilferage of energy is mainly committed by two categories of consumers i.e. non-  consumers and bona fide consumers

Antisocial elements avail unauthorized/unrecorded supply by hooking or tapping the bare conductors of L.T. feeder or tampered service wires. Some of the bona fide consumers willfully commit the  pilferage by way of damaging and/ or creating disturbances to measuring equipment installed at their premises. 

Some of the modes for illegal abstraction or consumption of electricity are given below:

  •         Tampering the meter readings by mechanical jerks, placement of powerful magnets or disturbing the disc rotation with      foreign matters.
  •          Stopping the meters by remote control.
  •          Willful burning of meters.
  •         Changing the sequence of terminal wiring.
  •         Bypassing the meter.
  •          Changing C.T.ratio and reducing the recording.
  •         Errors in meter reading and recording. 
  •          Improper testing and calibration of meters. 

·        IEEO reduces energy losses in distribution power system

Losses reduction initiatives in distribution systems have been activated due to the increasing cost of supplying electricity, also this reduction make the shortage in fuel with ever-increasing cost to produce more power, and the global warming concerns. These initiatives have been introduced to the utilities in shape of incentives and penalties. The electricity distribution companies in Iran have been incentivized to reduce the distribution technical and non-technical losses











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