Introduction To Energy Losses in Distribution Power System
generated in power stations
pass through large and complex networks like transformers, overhead lines,
cables and other equipment and reaches at the end users. It is fact that the
unit of electric energy generated by Power Station does not match with the
units distributed to the consumers. Some percentage of the units is lost in the
This difference in the generated and
distributed units is known as Transmission and Distribution loss. Transmission
and Distribution loss are the amounts that are not paid for by users.
% Losses = (Energy Input to
feeder(Kwh) – Billed Energy to Consumer(Kwh)) / Energy Input kwh x 100
Distribution Sector considered as the
weakest link in the entire power sector. Transmission Losses is approximate 3% while Distribution Losses is
There are two types of Distribution Losses:
Non Technical Losses (Commercial Losses)
technical losses are due to energy dissipated in the conductors, equipment used
for transmission line,
transformer, sub transmission line and distribution line and magnetic losses in
losses are directly depend on the network characteristics and the mode of
major amount of losses in a power system is in primary and secondary
distribution lines. While transmission and sub-transmission lines account for
only about 40-30% of the total losses. Therefore the primary and secondary
distribution systems must be properly planned to ensure within limits.
unexpected load increase was reflected in the increase of technical losses
above the normal level
are inherent to the distribution of electricity and cannot be eliminated.
Major cause of technical losses
2- Inadequate size of conductors of line
3- Installing of distribution transformer away from load center
4- Low power factor
5- Bad workmanship
6- Feeder phase current and load balancing
size and type selection
Reasons for commercial losses
and pilferage account for a substantial part of the high transmission and distribution
losses in India. Theft / pilferage of energy is mainly committed by two
categories of consumers i.e. non- consumers and bona fide consumers.
elements avail unauthorized/unrecorded supply by hooking or tapping the bare
conductors of L.T. feeder or tampered service wires. Some of the bona fide
consumers willfully commit the pilferage by way of damaging and/ or creating
disturbances to measuring equipment installed at their premises.
of the modes for illegal abstraction or consumption of electricity are given
the meter readings by mechanical jerks, placement of powerful magnets or
disturbing the disc rotation with foreign matters.
- Stopping the meters by remote control.
- Willful burning of meters.
- Changing the sequence of terminal wiring.
- Bypassing the meter.
- Changing C.T.ratio and reducing the recording.
- Errors in meter reading and recording.
- Improper testing and calibration of meters.
IEEO reduces energy losses in
distribution power system
reduction initiatives in distribution systems have been activated due to the
increasing cost of supplying electricity, also this reduction make the shortage
in fuel with ever-increasing cost to produce more power, and the global warming
concerns. These initiatives have been introduced to the utilities in shape of
incentives and penalties. The electricity distribution companies in Iran have
been incentivized to reduce the distribution technical and non-technical losses